After being recognized in 1990 by the Shingo Prize, my plant became an overnight hot spot for benchmarking. Hardly a week went by when there was not a visit from a distinguished visitor, Fortune 500 company, professional organization or college class. Initially we accepted the visits because of the good publicity for the company; good news sells products.
But very quickly we discovered that the process of sharing our continuous improvement story had a powerful effect on our employee and management commitment to Lean. This was not an outcome that I had anticipated. Sharing with visitors encouraged us to learn more; quoting a Latin proverb, “Docendo discimus,” the best way to learn is to teach. Anticipating a tour, employees were motivated to polish their efforts; to find one more before-and- after anecdote about changeovers or mistake-proofing or kanban or some clever idea they had implemented to make the job easier. Front line workers, many of whom had never previously been asked about their work, spoke eloquently about reducing waste and creating value. It was exciting for them to share knowledge and to be recognized for their grasps of topics that still eluded many of our visitors. “The engagement of your employees is an inspiration to me,” noted a visitor from a well-known automotive manufacture. “So many good ideas; how did this happen?” There was no single answer to that question.
One day, after a double-decker bus carrying students and
faculty from a well-known business school pulled out of our parking lot, an employee
from our welding department commented, “You know, Bruce, it’s fun having these
tours and being able to tell our story to visitors, but how about holding a
tour for our own employees?” He continued. “I’ve been building parts for our assembly
department for many years, but have never really seen how those parts are
The efficacy of this idea hit me instantly. It was an enormous missed opportunity. Shortly thereafter, the first of many employee tours was scheduled. Long before the terms “value stream” or Yokoten ever became part of the Lean lexicon, we were practicing and gaining the benefits. In the process, departmental boundaries were blurred and many more ideas stimulated and shared from the opportunity to see the whole rather than just the parts. A long-time employee commented to me after an employee tour. “We’re ‘Tours R Us.’ It’s a good thing.”
What are you doing to remove the silos and stimulate idea
sharing in your organization? Let me hear from you.
BTW – Don’t miss the opportunity to connect with your Lean community and share ideas about involving all of your employees in continuous improvement. Our 15th Annual Northeast Lean Conference is all about engaging your entire workforce to create value for your customers. We hope you will join us October 23-24 at the Connecticut Convention Center in Hartford. Listen to this important message from the Old Lean Dude to learn more.
Reflecting on McGregor’s X and Y Theories of human motivation, Shigeo Shingo took the position that each of us by nature has a dual tendency: sometimes lazy and self-interested, and other times motivated and generous. Which of these behaviors dominates is directly related to the environment in which we find ourselves – call it culture.
My personal experience as a manager, and as an employee, has surely confirmed Shingo’s opinion for me. Dropped into a manufacturing management role in 1986 with NO manufacturing experience, I had the opportunity to experience a quintessential Type X culture. My predecessor, a man of considerable personal knowledge of the business, had ruled for decades with an iron fist, intolerant of opinions other than his own. I remember commenting to a friend when I first took over the manufacturing VP job, “it seems like employees are children and production employees are bad children.” Transferring from an IT role in a different building to this new world of distrust and muted dissatisfaction was indeed a culture shock for me. After a short time on the job, my general foreman presented me with a list of employees to “keep an eye on.” He thought he was being helpful. “Troublemakers,” he whispered to me.
It turns out that a few of the troublemakers became early adopters of a different kind of culture, one where employees would be seen as “the most valuable resource.” What distinguished these rabble-rousers was that they had refused to be beaten down by the previous regime. My role as a manager was, in the words of Mr. Shingo, to turn their dissatisfaction (Theory X) into “constructive dissatisfaction” (Theory Y.) At the time I described the experience as akin to freeing prisoners. I wasn’t making them participate; I was just asking for their help. That seemingly simple shift ruffled more than a few feathers in management, a humbling experience I documented in a 2012 post jokingly entitled Lead with Humiliation. Lean transformation, I discovered, while difficult for everyone, is hardest for managers.
So, what does this story have to do with the words “accountability” and “authority”? In 2006, I had the pleasure of listening to David Mann, author of “Creating a Lean Culture“, deliver a presentation at the Shingo Conference on Leader Standard Work (LSW.) “A novel concept,” I thought to myself. “Why not clarify the manager’s role in developing a Lean culture?” So much effort had already been put into transforming front-line systems, but very little in transforming the management systems for folks who were steering the ship. In fact, the concept to engage managers by check-listing key culture-changing management activities, caught on in a big way. Many an organization I visit today has attempted to add LSW to its Lean transformation. Unfortunately, fifteen years and millions of white boards later, what seemed like a good concept is failing in execution. Here are my observations.
“Creating a Lean Culture” depicts the Lean management system as comprised of three parts:
Visual Controls. Mann describes a wide variety of devices such as hour-by-hour charts intended to make each process obvious on a real-time basis. Are we on schedule? Are there defects? But very few organizations that I visit have a robust standardized work system for specifying and improving work. More common is “standard work,” which describes only the sequence of the work, often in generalities. Whether in a factory or office or operating room, the failure to understand cadence and precise composition of the work creates a very shaky foundation for accountability.
Standard Accountability. This, for most sites I visit, is the centerpiece of the Lean management system. Operational status for a work group is summarized periodically and discussed at a brief stand-up meeting. Impediments to flow are noted and countermeasures are reviewed. The supervisor of the front line is the owner of the “Tier 1” board and is accountable meet specific KPI’s. The Tier 1 board is tied to goals and targets set at a higher-level Tier 2 board, which is owned by the manager. He or she is accountable for Tier 2. Finally, at the global level is the Tier 3 board owned by the executive. This is the principle that enables oversight and alignment of goals and measures.
Several issues frustrate the effectiveness of Standard Accountability.
First, as noted above, workers are often not given a stable, repeatable process to run. Says Mann, “until you demonstrate an improvement in stability of a process by applying the tools of Lean production, leader standard work comes across as a waste of time, a bureaucratic abstraction without real meaning.”
Second, inadequate attention is given to actual Kaizen. Referring to the role of leader standard work, Mann notes, “the journey truly begins in earnest after the production floor has been rearranged, or procedures redefined.” But, if front-line capability to deploy countermeasures to problems has not first been established, then what system is there to manage? It’s a bit like coaching a baseball team where the players themselves have never played. We can measure the balls and strikes, but nobody has learned how to bat. Before accountability, there must be ability.
Third, there’s that word “accountability.” Check out Roget’s Thesaurus for the synonyms: blame, fault, liability, answerability, responsibility, culpability, chargeability. Or just listen to the evening news for the connotation of the word. It’s the equivalent of referring to mistake-proofing as fool-proofing. In this sense, accountability is more like finger-pointing. Mr. Shingo condemned the word fool-proofing because it was a Theory X word. I think if he were alive today, he would also ban the use of word accountability for the same reason. When our words imply that we must make people do something, we’re perpetuating an archaic Theory X view. As managers, we should be enabling our employees to develop their capabilities. We should be authorizing them to master their crafts. Words mean something. We should choose them carefully.
Finally, the concept of tiered accountability can provide an empowering line of sight to all employees and managers, IF it is sincerely followed by all – and when I see the occasional effective tiered accountability process it underscores the power of true alignment. More commonly, however, engagement at higher tiers is spotty; accountability in that case flows downhill. The message at Tier 1 is “S.O.S.”
Leader Standard Work (LSW). This is the management checklist that keeps everyone practiced with the new way, a thoughtfully constructed list of periodic tasks for executives, managers and supervisors, designed to show visible commitment and support for the new way. This is the concept that first intrigued me when I listened to David Mann’s presentation in 2006: a reminder to managers to be leaders for change. My observation over the last decade is that managers who use LSW well soon become practiced and no longer need a checklist. Unfortunately, many managers create a checklist, but then don’t follow it. “My day is too unpredictable to use leader standard work,” one manager tells me. An all too common refrain. We are asking our employees to embrace change, but we are excused. It is perhaps no accident that the third edition of Mann’s book, released a decade after the original, adds a full chapter dealing with the challenge to engage management.
From the foregoing rant, it may seem that I don’t subscribe to concepts put forth in “Creating a Lean Culture”; but in fact, fifteen years after its publication, I continue to believe that if employees have both ability and authority, then the guidance and alignment provided by a Lean management system is imperative. That is Theory Y. As David Mann reminds us, “Execution is the key to lean management.” The authority to execute, today as in 2006, rests squarely on the shoulders of executives.
What is your experience creating a Lean management system? Can you share a story or observation?
Hope to see you all at our 15th annual Northeast LEAN Conference in Hartford, October 23-24. The topic of engagement – employees and execs – will be a main focus. Our theme this year, Total Employee Involvement, combines the knowledge and experience of leading practitioners and experts. Want more information? Click here.
Every December the man in the red suit delivers cheer and presents to millions of happy children around the world. It seems like magic, but a closer observation of Santa’s behavior demonstrates that Santa actually employed critical elements of TPS philosophy long before Toyota itself did. For example, Shotaro Kamiya, Toyota’s first president of sales, hired away from Nippon GM in 1935, championed a new idea at Toyota: “The customer comes first, the dealer second, and the manufacturer third.” Kamiya’s “Customer First” philosophy was revolutionary for Toyota and bedrock in the philosophy.
Yet, as can be seen from this documentaryfootage of Mr. Claus, Santa was abiding by this ideal many years earlier. His chagrin, when asked to “push” toys that were slow movers, indicates St. Nick’s abhorrence for speculative production also known as overproduction. After all, the Christmas list was the original Kanban. Without this pull system, Santa’s elves would, like many manufacturers, always be very busy building the wrong things; and Santa would have to leave backorder notes under the tree on Christmas morning. As for standardization, anyone familiar with Norad’s Santa tracker will attest to his standardized conveyance route. And Oh! What a Takt time for the jolly old elf! I have to admit that despite my enduring admiration for Toyota’s Production System, none other than Santa Claus is the penultimate just-in-time provider. Thank you, Santa.
To everyone else, ho ho ho. Have a restful and happy holiday. Gratitude.
P.S. I hope you will join me this upcoming Tuesday, December 18th, for my monthly free webinar “Tea Time with The Toast Dude”. I’ll be discussing how organizations sometimes struggle to gain traction with Hoshin planning. While substantial energy is put into the strategic planning process, too often the plan becomes a static document that fails to align and motivate the entire workforce. The deployment part of strategy deployment does not happen. Read more/Register here. Did I mention it’s free? Hope to “see” you there.
Last week as I climbed into my car, I glanced at a tub of morning glories that I’d started from seed last March. All spring and summer the plant grew taller and taller leaping at one point off the trellis and over the garage door frame. Green and gangly, my morning glory plant was the picture of health, but for one thing: it had no flowers. I watered and fertilized, but each morning as I climbed into my car nary a bloom; even into the early fall there was only greenery. With the first frost imminent, I’d pretty much given up on the idea of blooms.
But then, suddenly (or so it seemed) on October 19th there was a profusion of heavenly blue blossoms. I waxed philosophical at the sight, reflecting that some of us are just late bloomers. We find our passion, if we’re fortunate, a little later in life.
One week earlier I’d delivered the opening keynote at the Northeast Lean Conference in Providence, RI. Before beginning, I asked the audience for a show of hands: “How many of you,” I inquired, “when you entered the workforce and took your first job, had no idea that one day you’d be attending a conference that dealt with transforming your organization?” Five hundred hands went up – almost everyone in the hall. Perhaps there were a few twenty-somethings who knew from the first that this would be their career, but for most of us, there was no guiding vision of Lean Transformation when we took our first jobs. For me personally, there were few resources to even prepare me for the struggle of a cultural and conceptual revolution. I left school with a B.A. in English literature to work in a marketing department. Today I relate happily that, with the exception of that first job, I’ve been equally unprepared for every job I’ve ever held.
In fact, if the hands in the audience are any indication, many of us entered the workforce with a different idea of the future. Who knew we’d become excited about dealing with seemingly overwhelming challenges? Who knew that a serendipitous struggle – or in some cases calamity – would draw us into the fray? Who knew that would become a personal burning platform. “Thank you,” I said before continuing, “Thank you for the important contributions that you all make.” Late bloomers, all of us.
I’d be very interested to know, how did your Lean journey begin? Please share your story.
PS A quick reminder: At the conference last week, we offered a special super early bird discount ticket price for next year’s Northeast Lean Conference – October 23-24, 2019 in Hartford CT – good through the end of this month. If you’re planning to attend (and you should be) register now and save huge (only $795 per person instead of the regular $995 for members, $1095 for non members). The theme will be “Total Employee Improvement”. We can’t wait.
It’s hard to believe that 2018 is the 20th anniversary for the Toast Kaizen video. After two decades, nearly one hundred and fifty thousand copies have been sold – in more than a dozen languages from Spanish to Icelandic. It’s everywhere. Several years ago, while walking down the streets of Dubai, I was stopped by a gentleman who pointed to me and declared, “You’re the Toast Man.” I frequently encounter folks who tell me, “You’re famous,” to which I reply, “No, the “Toast Kaizen” video is famous.” And happily so. What was originally intended as a device to encourage fellow managers to get out of their offices and go see has become a non-threatening way to explain continuous improvement to almost anyone. As I say on the video, “It’s not about the work, it’s about the things that get in the way of the work”.
While it’s gratifying to think that this campy thirty-minute video has found a place in Lean Transformations, it’s also a little concerning when I hear that the “Toast Kaizen” video is the Lean training. What was created as an icebreaker, has occasionally been overblown beyond its purpose. Some time ago, while speaking at the Shingo Conference I asked attendees in the audience how many had seen the Toast video. Nearly every hand went up. But when I asked who had read any of Shigeo Shingo’s books, only a few hands went up. I asked the audience, “Did you know there’s a whole lot more to Lean than the Toast video?”
Yes, a whole lot more than viewing the “Toast Kaizen” video will be needed to really receive the benefits of Lean. Toast is just a small catalyst to kick off the continuous improvement engine. This is why at the 14th Annual Northeast L.E.A.N. conference, while we celebrate Toast’s 20th (tattoos and Toast caps for everyone), we are also homing in on those transformers that have truly become Lean Learning organizations and whose compelling results bear witness to their efforts.
There’s still time to register, but seats are filling fast. Please join me on October 10-11 at the Providence Convention Center. Rhode Island is beautiful this time of year. I’d be remiss if I didn’t also mention the two Shingo Institute courses – Discover Excellence and Continuous Improvement – which are being offered in conjunction with the conference. You can learn more about those here.